Economics & Trade
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go directly to report, PDF _ RS22822 - Lighting Efficiency in Standards in Energy Independence aned Security Act of 2007: Are Incandescnt Light Bulbs
23-Apr-2008; Jeffrey Logan; 6 p.
Abstract: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140) sets new performance standards for many common light bulbs. Tier I standards require a 25%- 30% increase in the energy efficiency of typical light bulbs beginning in 2012, and still greater improvements through Tier II standards star.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Economics & Trade, Legislative, Science & Technology
2050 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL34111 - Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act of 2007, Title VI of H.R. 3221: Summary and Discussion of Oil and Gas Provisions
29-Feb-2008; Marc Humphries; 10 p.
Abstract: The conflict between environmental concerns and the need for increased domestic energy production from public lands continues to be a major policy issue. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005, P.L. 109-58), enacted several provisions that were aimed at expediting the development of oil and ga.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Natural Resources, Economics & Trade, Risk & Reform
2039 
go directly to report, PDF _ RS21030 - ANWR Development: Economic Impacts
24-Jan-2006; Bernard A. Gelb; 6 p.
Update: May 26, 2006

Previous Reports:
NLE/CRSreports/05Oct/RS21030.pdf
NLE/CRSreports/02feb/RS21030.pdf.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: The 109th Congress may again decide whether to continue to protect the ecosystem on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) or to open it to oil and gas drilling – with good prospects of finding economically recoverable amounts of oil. Less certain are the actual amounts o.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Public Lands, Economics & Trade

1523 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL34261 - Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
27-Mar-2008; Steven Woehrel; 24 p.
Update: Previous Editions:
January 17, 2008.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: Russian oil and natural gas industries are increasingly important players in the global energy market, particularly in Europe and Eurasia. Another trend has been the increasing concentration of these industries in the hands of the Russian government. This latter phenomenon has been accompanie.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Energy, International, Economics & Trade
1935 
go directly to report, PDF _ RS21858 - Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview
5-Mar-2008; Susan R. Fletcher; 2 p.
Update: Previous Releases:
March 2, 2007
October 19, 2006
June 2, 2006
March 21, 2006
October 28, 2005
April 5, 2005
June 9, 2004
.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: The Global Environment Facility (GEF), established in 1991, has served since then as a primary source of funding for several major international environmental concerns. It was designed to provide incremental additional funding for development projects, in order to allow incorporation of environme.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: International, Information, Economics & Trade
1512 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL34150 - Climate Change: The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) Gets Ready for Kyoto
11-Feb-2008; Larry Parker; 30 p.
Update: Previous releases:
November 6, 2007.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: The European Union’s (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 27 EU Member countries; covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide e.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Climate Change, Economics & Trade, International
1927 
go directly to report, PDF _ RS21128 - The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
4-Feb-2008; James K. Jackson; 6 p.
Update: Previous Releases:
February 7, 2006

June 1, 2006

.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries1 discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy. While all of the member countries are considered to be economically advanced and collectively p.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Economics & Trade, Government

1585 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL33536 - China-U.S. Trade Issues
12-May-2008; Wayne M. Morrison; 34 p.
Update: Previous releases:
May 3, 2007 (/NLE/CRSreports/07May/RL33536.pdf)
April 23, 2007 (/NLE/CRSreports/07Apr/RL33536.pdf)
.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past several years. Total U.S.-China trade, which totaled only $5 billion in 1980, rose to $387 billion in 2007. China overtook Japan to become the third largest U.S. export market, and overtook Canada to become the largest source of U.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Economics & Trade, International
1834 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL32751 - The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Background and Issues
5-Feb-2008; Pervaze A. Sheikh and M. Lynne Corn; 17 p.
Update: Previous Releases
February 1, 2005
May 19,2005.... [expand]  [read report]
Abstract: The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been ratified by 167 nations, including the United States. It regulates the international trade in animals and plants that may be threatened by trade. CITES entered into force in 1975 and currently regula.... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Economics & Trade, International, Biodiversity
222 
go directly to report, PDF _ RL34314 - China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy
27-Feb-2008; Wayne M. Morrison and Marc Labonte ; 13 p.
Abstract: Given its relatively low savings rate, the U.S. economy depends heavily on foreign capital inflows from countries with high savings rates (such as China) to help promote growth and to fund the federal budget deficit. China has intervened heavily in currency markets to limit the yuan’s appreciation. .... [expand]  [read report]
Topics: Economics & Trade, International Finance
1949 
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