Ocean Dumping ActPrepared by Claudia Copeland, Specialist in Environmental Policy,
CONTENTS FOR THIS SECTION
Table 1. Ocean Dumping Act and Amendments
Regulating Ocean Dumping
Research And Coastal Water Quality Monitoring
Table 2. Major U.S. Code Sections of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
The Ocean Dumping Act has two basic aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize related research. Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532), which is often referred to just as the Ocean Dumping Act, contains permit and enforcement provisions for ocean dumping. Research provisions are contained in title II, concerning general and ocean disposal research; title IV, which established a regional marine research program; and title V, which addresses coastal water quality monitoring. The third title of the MPRSA, not addressed here, authorizes the establishment of marine sanctuaries. Table 1 shows the original enactment and subsequent amendments.
Table 1. Ocean Dumping Act
(codified as 33 U.S.C. 1401-1445, 16 U.S.C. 1431-1447f, 33 U.S.C. 2801-2805 )
|Year||Act||Public Law Number|
|1972||Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act||P.L. 92-532|
|1974||London Dumping Convention Implementation||P.L. 93-254|
|1977||Authorization of Appropriations||P.L. 95-153|
|1980||Authorization of Appropriations||P.L. 96-381|
|1980||Authorization of Appropriations||P.L. 96-572|
|1982||Surface Transportation Assistance Act||P.L. 97-424|
|1986||Budget Reconciliation||P.L. 99-272, §§6061-6065|
|1986||Water Resources Development Act||P.L. 99-662, §§211, 728, 1172|
|1987||Water Quality Act of 1987||P.L. 100-4, §508|
|1988||Ocean dumping research amendments||P.L. 100-627, title I|
|1988||Ocean Dumping Ban Act||P.L. 100-688, title I|
|1988||U.S. Public Vessel Medical Waste Anti-Dumping Act of 1988||P.L. 100-688, title III|
|1990||Regional marine research centers||P.L. 101-593, title III|
|1992||National Coastal Monitoring Act||P.L. 102-567, title V|
|1992||Water Resource Development Act||P.L. 102-580, §§504-510|
The nature of marine pollution requires that it be regulated internationally, since once a pollutant enters marine waters, it knows no boundary. Thus, a series of regional treaties and conventions pertaining to local marine pollution problems and more comprehensive international conventions providing uniform standards to control worldwide marine pollution has evolved over the last 25 years.
At the same time that key international protocols were being adopted and ratified by large number of countries worldwide (early 1970s), the United States enacted the MPRSA to regulate disposal of wastes in marine waters that are within U.S. jurisdiction. It utilizes a comprehensive and uniform waste management system to regulate disposal or dumping of all materials into ocean waters. Prior to 1972, U.S. marine waters had been used extensively as a convenient alternative to land-based sites for the disposal of various wastes such as sewage sludge, industrial wastes, and pipeline discharges and runoff.
The basic provisions of the Act have remained virtually unchanged since 1972, but many new authorities have been added. These newer parts include (1) research responsibilities for EPA; (2) specific direction that EPA phase out the disposal of "harmful" sewage sludges and industrial wastes; (3) a ban on the ocean disposal of sewage sludge and industrial wastes by Dec. 31, 1991; (4) inclusion of Long Island Sound within the purview of the Act; and (5) inclusion of medical waste provisions. Authorizations for appropriations to support provisions of the law expired at the end of fiscal year 1997 (Sept. 30, 1997). Authorities did not lapse, however, and Congress has continued to appropriate funds to carry out the Act.
Four federal agencies have responsibilities under the Ocean Dumping Act: EPA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Coast Guard. EPA has primary authority for regulating ocean disposal of all substances except dredged spoils, which are under the authority of the Corps of Engineers. NOAA is responsible for long-range research on the effects of human-induced changes to the marine environment, while EPA is authorized to carry out research and demonstration activities related to phasing out sewage sludge and industrial waste dumping. The Coast Guard is charged with maintaining surveillance of ocean dumping.
Regulating Ocean Dumping
Title I of the MPRSA prohibits all ocean dumping, except that allowed by permits, in any ocean waters under U.S. jurisdiction, by any U.S. vessel, or by any vessel sailing from a U.S. port. The Act bans any dumping of radiological, chemical, and biological warfare agents and any high-level radioactive waste, and medical wastes. Permits for dumping of other materials, except dredge spoils, can be issued by the EPA after notice and opportunity for public hearings where the Administrator determines that such dumping will not unreasonably degrade or endanger human health, welfare, the marine environment, ecological systems, or economic potentialities. EPA designates sites for ocean dumping and specifies in each permit where the material is to be disposed.
In 1977, Congress amended the Act to require that dumping of municipal sewage sludge or industrial wastes which unreasonably degrade the environment cease by December 1981. In 1986 amendments, Congress directed that ocean disposal of all wastes cease at the traditional 12-mile site off the New York/New Jersey coast (that is, barred issuance of permits at the 12-mile site) and be moved to a new site 106 miles offshore. In 1988, Congress enacted several laws amending the Ocean Dumping Act, with particular emphasis on phasing out sewage sludge and industrial waste disposal in the ocean, which continued despite earlier legislative efforts.
Also in 1992, Congress amended the Act to permit states to adopt ocean dumping standards more stringent than federal standards and to require that permits conform with long-term management plans for designated dumpsites, to ensure that permitted activities are consistent with expected uses of the site.
Virtually all ocean dumping that occurs today is dredged material, sediments removed from the bottom of waterbodies in order to maintain navigation channels. The Corps of Engineers issues permits for ocean dumping of dredged material, the bulk of which results from maintenance dredging by the Corps itself or its contractors. According to EPA, more than 400 million cubic yards of sediment is dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year approximately 60 million cubic yards of this material is disposed of in the ocean at designated sites. Before sediments can be permitted to be dumped in the ocean, they are evaluated to ensure that the dumping will not cause significant harmful effects to human health or the marine environment. EPA is responsible for developing criteria to ensure that the ocean disposal of dredge spoils does not cause environmental harm. Permits for ocean disposal of dredged material are to be based on the same criteria utilized by EPA under other provisions of the Act, and to the extent possible, EPA-recommended dumping sites are used. Where the only feasible disposition of dredged material would violate the dumping criteria, the Corps can request an EPA waiver. Amendments enacted in 1992 expanded EPA's role in permitting of dredged material by authorizing EPA to impose permit conditions or even deny a permit, if necessary to prevent environmental problems.
Permits issued under the Ocean Dumping Act specify the type of material to be disposed, the amount to be transported for dumping, the location of the dumpsite, the length of time the permit is valid, and special provisions for surveillance. The EPA Administrator can require a permit applicant to provide information necessary for the review and evaluation of the application.
The Act authorizes EPA to assess civil penalties of not more than $50,000 for each violation of a permit or permit requirement, taking into account such factors as gravity of the violation, prior violations, and demonstrations of good faith; however, no penalty can be assessed until after notice and opportunity for a hearing. Criminal penalties (including seizure and forfeiture of vessels) for knowing violations of the Act also are authorized. In addition, the Act authorizes penalties for ocean dumping of medical wastes (civil penalties up to $125,000 for each violation and criminal penalties up to $250,000, 5 years in prison, or both). The Coast Guard is directed to conduct surveillance and other appropriate enforcement activities to prevent unlawful transportation of material for dumping, or unlawful dumping. Like many other federal environmental laws, the Ocean Dumping Act allows individuals to bring a citizen suit in U.S. district court against any person, including the United States, for violation of a permit or other prohibition, limitation, or criterion issued under title I of the Act.
In conjunction with the Ocean Dumping Act, the Clean Water Act (CWA) regulates all discharges into navigable waters including the territorial seas. Although these two laws overlap in their coverage of dumping from vessels within the territorial seas, any question of conflict is essentially moot because EPA has promulgated a uniform set of standards (40 CFR Parts 220-229). The Ocean Dumping Act preempts the CWA in coastal waters or open oceans, and the CWA controls in estuaries. States are permitted to regulate ocean dumping in waters within their jurisdiction under certain circumstances.
The Act also requires the Administrator, to the extent possible, to apply the standards and criteria binding upon the United States that are stated in the 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matters (known as the London Dumping Convention). This Convention, signed by more than 85 countries, includes Annexes that prohibit the dumping of mercury, cadmium and other substances such as DDT and PCBs, solid wastes and persistent plastics, oil, high-level radioactive wastes, and chemical and biological warfare agents; and requires special permits for other heavy metals, cyanides and fluorides, and medium- and low-level radioactive wastes.
Research And Coastal Water Quality Monitoring
Title II of the MPRSA authorizes two types of research: general research on ocean resources, under the jurisdiction of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and EPA research related to phasing out ocean disposal activities.
NOAA is directed to carry out a comprehensive, long-term research program on the effects not only of ocean dumping, but also of pollution, overfishing, and other human-induced changes on the marine ecosystem. Additionally, NOAA assesses damages from spills of petroleum and petroleum products.
EPA's research role includes "research, investigations, experiments, training, demonstrations, surveys, and studies" to minimize or end the dumping of sewage sludge and industrial wastes, along with research on alternatives to ocean disposal. Amendments in 1980 required EPA to study technological options for removing heavy metals and certain organic materials from New York City's sewage sludge.
Title IV of the MPRSA established 9 regional marine research boards for the purpose of developing comprehensive marine research plans, considering water quality and ecosystem conditions and research and monitoring priorities and objectives in each region. The plans, after approval by NOAA and EPA, are to guide NOAA in awarding research grant funds under this title of the Act.
Title V of the MPRSA established a national coastal water quality monitoring program. It directs EPA and NOAA jointly to implement a long-term program to collect and analyze scientific data on the environmental quality of coastal ecosystems, including ambient water quality, health and quality of living resources, sources of environmental degradation, and data on trends. Results of these activities (including intensive monitoring of key coastal waters) are intended to provide information necessary to design and implement effective programs under the Clean Water Act and Coastal Zone Management Act.
Moore, Steven J. "Troubles in the High Seas: A New Era in the Regulation of U.S. Ocean Dumping." Environmental Law. Northwestern School of Law, Lewis and Clark College. Vol. 22, No. 3, 1992. pp. 913-951.
Richards, Frederick Forrest, III. "Ocean Dumping: An International and Domestic Perspective." Journal of Legislation. Vol. 17, No. 2, 1991. pp. 287-307.
Table 2. Major U.S. Code
Sections of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act(2)
(codified as 33 U.S.C. 1401-1445, 16 U.S.C. 1431-1447f, 33 U.S.C. 2801-2805)
|Section Title||Ocean Dumping Act|
|1401||Congressional findings, policy, declaration of purpose||sec. 2|
|Title I -||Permit Program|
|1411||Prohibited acts||sec. 101|
|1412||Environmental Protection Agency permits||sec. 102|
|1413||Corps of Engineers permits||sec. 103|
|1414||Permit conditions||sec. 104|
|1414a||Special provisions regarding certain dumping sites||sec. 104A|
|1414b||Ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste||sec. 104B|
|1414c||Prohibition on disposal of sewage sludge at landfills on Staten Island||sec. 104C|
|1416||Relationship to other laws||sec. 106|
|1419||International cooperation||sec. 109|
|1420||Authorization of appropriations||sec. 111|
|1421||Annual report to Congress||sec. 112|
|Title II -||Research Programs|
|1441||Monitoring and research programs||sec. 201|
|1442||Research on long-term effects||sec. 202|
|1443||Research program - ocean dumping and other methods||sec. 203|
|1444||Annual reports||sec. 204|
|1445||Authorization of appropriations||sec. 205|
|Title III||Marine Sanctuaries|
|Title IV -||Regional Marine Research Programs|
|1447b||Regional marine research boards||sec. 403|
|1447c||Regional research plans||sec. 404|
|1447d||Research grant program||sec. 405|
|1447e||Report on research program||sec. 406|
|1447f||Authorization of appropriations||sec. 407|
|Title V -||National Coastal Monitoring System|
|2803||Comprehensive coastal water quality monitoring program||sec. 503|
|2804||Report to Congress||sec. 504|
|2805||Authorization of appropriations||sec. 505|
2. NOTE: This table shows the major code sections. For more detail and to determine when a section was added, the reader should consult the printed version of the U.S. Code.
|The NCSE also recommends CRS reports on Maritime Issues including Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law|