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IB10041: Renewable Energy: Tax
March 9, 2001
Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, came back into play as oil and gas prices rose late in the year 2000. Also, the electricity shortages in California have brought a new emphasis to the role that renewable energy may play in electricity supply.
In the 107th Congress, debate over renewable energy programs appears to be taking a focus on tax credits, incentives, and the Bush Administration's outline for the FY2002 budget request in A Blueprint for New Beginnings: A Responsible Budget for America's Priorities.
Also, worldwide emphasis on environmental problems of air and water pollution and global climate change, and the related development of clean energy technologies in western Europe and Japan may remain important influences on renewable energy policymaking. Concern about technology competitiveness may also remain a factor in debate.
The FY2001 Energy and Water Appropriations bill that funds DOE's Renewable Energy Programs was incorporated into P.L. 106-377 (H.R. 4635; H.Rept. 106-988). It replaced H.R. 4733 (H.Rept. 106-907), which had been vetoed.. The law provides $422.1 million (including $47.1 million managed by the Office of Science). The law provides $32.8 million, or 7%, less than the FY2001 request. (See Table 2 at the end of this brief.)
Relative to the FY2000 funding level, the law provides an increase of $59.9 million, or 17%, in current dollar terms. This includes $13.6 million more for Electric/Storage, $8.8 million more for Photovoltaics, $7.5 million more for Biofuels-Power, $7.0 million more for Wind, $6.7 million more for Biofuels-Transportation, and $3.0 million more for Geothermal.
The electricity shortages in California have forced a rethinking of state and federal efforts to restructure the electricity industry. Bills in the 106th Congress that aimed to continue a role for renewables in this industry included some combination of renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), public benefits fund (PBF), and/or an information disclosure requirement that supports green power. Some states and electric utility companies have already instituted such measures. Debate in the 107th Congress may again focus on whether there should be a federal role in restructuring generally and in creating incentives for renewables specifically.
A Bush Administration proposal to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil development has taken legislative form in S. 388. This bill also provides an incentive for the development of alternative fuels derived from renewable energy and other sources.
In March 2001, the Bush Administration issued A Blueprint for New Beginnings: A Responsible Budget for America's Priorities. This is an outline of the Administration's budget request, which is expected on April 3. In Chapter 10, the Blueprint notes that solar and renewable energy cannot replace fossil fuels in the near-term, but will be an important part of the nation's long-term energy supply. As part of creating a comprehensive energy policy, the Bush Administration proposes to increase the "performance" of renewable energy R&D by "winnowing out" less promising projects; to use tax credits for rooftop solar equipment and renewable fuels to help market penetration; and to use income from oil and gas production on federal lands to support development of solar and renewable energy. P.L. 106-377 (H.R. 4635; H.Rept. 106-988) was signed into law on October 27, 2000. It includes the FY2001 Energy and Water Appropriations bill that provides $422.1 million for the DOE Renewable Energy Program.
(A Blueprint for New Beginnings is available on the White House web site http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/usbudget/blueprint/budtoc.html.)
Renewable energy is derived from resources that are generally not depleted by human use, such as the sun, wind, and water movement. These primary sources of energy can be converted into heat, electricity and mechanical energy in several ways. There are some mature technologies for conversion of renewable energy such as hydropower, biomass, and waste combustion. Other conversion technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, are already well-developed, but have not achieved the technological efficiency and market penetration which many expect they will ultimately reach. Although geothermal energy is produced from geological rather than solar sources, it is often included as a renewable energy resource and this brief treats it as one. Commercial nuclear power is not considered to be a renewable energy resource. (For further definitions of renewable energy, see the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's web site information on "Clean Energy 101" http://www.nrel.gov/clean_energy/.)
According to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 1999, renewable energy resources supplied about 6.7 Q (quadrillion Btu's or quads) of the 94.4 Q the nation used in 1998, or about 7.2% of national energy demand. More than half of renewable energy production takes the form of electricity supply. Of this, most is provided by utility hydropower. However, in 1998, declining hydroelectric availability led to a 0.33 Q, or 5%, drop in national renewable energy use and it is projected to result in a further 0.13 Q, or 2%, drop in 1999. Industrial use of renewables, supplied primarily by biofuels, accounts for most of the remaining contribution.
After more than 20 years of federal support, some note that renewable energy has neither achieved a high level of market penetration nor a growing market share among other energy sources. A recent review of renewable energy studies by Resources for the Future, Renewable Energy: Winner, Loser, or Innocent Victim?, concludes that the lower-than-projected market penetration and flat market share are due primarily to declining fossil fuel and electricity prices during this period. In contrast, however, it notes that the costs for renewable energy technologies have declined by amounts equal to or exceeding those of earlier projections. Further, it says that the declining price of electricity is likely to continue moving the cost threshold for renewable energy downward, making it difficult for renewables to capture a larger share of the electricity market.
EIA's 1999 Annual Energy Outlook projects that current policies would yield an 0.8% average annual increase through 2020, resulting in a 22% total increase in renewable energy production. This would amount to about 6.8% of the projected 119 Q total demand in 2020. (Detailed breakdowns of renewable energy use appear in EIA's Renewable Energy Annual 1998 and Renewable Energy Issues and Trends 1998.)
Our Common Future, the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, found that "energy efficiency can only buy time for the world to develop 'low-energy paths' based on renewable sources..." Although many renewable energy systems are in a relatively early stage of development, they offer the world "a potentially huge primary energy source, sustainable in perpetuity and available in various forms to every nation on Earth." It suggested that a Research, Development, and Demonstration (R,D&D) program of renewable energy projects is required to attain the same level of primary energy that is now obtained from a mix of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources.
The Agenda 21 adopted at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) concluded that mitigating urban air pollution and the adverse impact of energy use on the atmosphere -- such as acid rain, global warming, and climate change -- requires an emphasis on "clean and renewable energy sources." A 1996 report by the President's Council on Sustainable Development, Energy and Transportation, called for raising the renewable energy share of U.S. energy supply to 12% in 2010 and 25% in 2025.
The oil embargo of 1973 sparked a quadrupling of energy prices, major economic shock, and the establishment of a comprehensive federal energy program to help with the nation's immediate and long-term energy needs. During the 1970s, the federal renewable energy program grew rapidly to include basic and applied R&D, and joint federal participation with the private sector in demonstration projects, commercialization, and information dissemination. In addition, the federal government instituted market incentives, such as business and residential tax credits, and created a utility market for non-utility produced electric power through the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (P.L. 95-617).
The subsequent failure of the oil cartel and the return of low oil and gas prices in the early 1980s slowed the federal program. Despite Congress's consistent support for a broader, more aggressive renewable energy program than any Administration, federal spending for these programs fell steadily through 1990. Lacking a sustained, long-range policy from the Administration, Congress first took a major initiative in 1974. Until 1994, Congress led policy development and funding through legislative initiatives and close reviews of annual budget submissions. FY1995 marked a noteworthy shift, with the 103rd Congress for the first time approving less funding than the Administration had requested. The 104th Congress approved 23% less than the Clinton Administration request for FY1996 and 8% less for FY1997. However, funding turned upward again during the 105th Congress and in the 106th Congress. (A detailed description of DOE programs appears in DOE's FY2001 Congressional Budget Request, DOE/CR-0068, v. 3, February 2000.)
From FY1973 through FY1998, the federal government spent about $11.7 billion (in 1999 constant dollars) for renewable energy R&D. Renewable energy R&D funding grew from less than $1 million per year in the early 1970s to over $1.3 billion in FY1979 and FY1980, then declined steadily to $136 million in FY1990. Spending rose from FY1991 to FY1995, declined in FY1996 and FY1997, then rose again in FY1998, reaching $275 million in 1999 constant dollars.
This spending history can be viewed within the context of DOE spending for the three other major energy R&D programs: nuclear, fossil, and energy efficiency R&D. From FY1948 through FY1972, in 1999 constant dollars, the federal government spent about $22.4 billion for nuclear (fission and fusion) energy R&D and about $5.1 billion for fossil energy R&D. From FY1973 through FY1998, in 1999 constant dollars, the federal government spent $43.2 billion for nuclear, $21.1 billion for fossil, $11.7 billion for renewables, and $8 billion for energy efficiency. Total energy R&D spending from FY1948-FY1998 reached $111.5 billion, including $66 billion, or 59% for nuclear, $26 billion, or 23%, for fossil, $12 billion, or 11%, for renewables, and $8 billion, or 7%, for energy efficiency.
Tax Credits. The Energy Tax Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-618) created residential solar credits and the residential and business credits for wind energy installations; it expired on December 31, 1985. However, business investment credits were extended repeatedly through the 1980s. Section 1916 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT, P.L. 102-486) extended the 10% business tax credits for solar and geothermal equipment indefinitely. Also, EPACT Section 1914 created an income tax "production" credit of 1.5 cents/kwh for electricity produced by wind and closed-loop biomass systems. P.L. 106-170 expanded this credit to include poultry waste and extended it through December 31, 2001.
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (P.L. 96-917) required electric utilities to purchase power produced by qualified renewable power facilities. Under PURPA, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) established rules requiring that electric utilities purchase power from windfarms and other small power producers at an "avoided cost" price based on energy and capacity costs that the utility would otherwise incur by generating the power itself or purchasing it elsewhere. However, to receive avoided cost payments, each renewables facility must file for, and obtain, qualifying facility (QF) status from FERC. EIA's Renewable Energy 1998: Issues and Trends (p. 4-5) reports that, by the end of 1996, nonutility renewable power capacity reached 17,200 MW, of which 12,600 MW came from QFs, including 3,420 MW of small hydropower facilities. These renewable power facilities generated nearly 90 billion kwh, of which 69 billion kwh was produced by QFs, including about 12 billion kwh of small hydropower. Thus, in 1996, QFs accounted for about 73% of nonutility renewable power capacity and about 76% of nonutility renewable power generation. QFs provided about 1.8% of national electric capacity and about 2.2% of national electricity generation.
The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA, P.L. 103-62) requires each federal agency to produce and update a strategic plan linked to annual performance plans. DOE's active Strategic Plan was issued in 1997. On February 18, 2000, DOE issued a new Draft Strategic Plan. Renewable energy objectives and strategies appear under strategic goal #1 "Energy Resources." On March 30, 2000, DOE released its Accountability Report, which assesses the results of DOE's performance goals for FY1999. In the DOE Annual Performance Plan for FY2001, strategic objective ER2 aims to "Promote reliable, affordable electricity supplies that are generated with acceptable environmental impacts." Goals for 2010 include: triple non-hydro renewable generating capacity, increase distributed power to 20% of new annual capacity additions, and complete one million solar roofs. Two related performance goals for FY2001 are: increase non-hydro generating capacity to 9.3 million kilowatts, and install 20,000 solar roofs, bringing the total to 90,000 solar roofs installed. Six other FY2001 performance goals involve thin film photovoltaics, small dish concentrating power systems, a Kalina Cycle geothermal demonstration plant, testing of biomass gasification cofiring with coal, wind hybrid control technology, and demonstration of electric torch hydrogen production without carbon dioxide. Also, in April 2000, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) released a strategic plan, Clean Energy for the 21st Century. Further, in early 2000, the National Academy of Public Administration issued A Review of Management in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the National Research Council issued Renewable Power Pathways: A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Renewable Energy Programs.
In the first session of the 107th Congress, a number of renewable energy tax credit bills have been introduced.
Production Tax Credit. This 1.5 cent/kwh production tax credit (PTC) was created by Section 1914 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It is currently available for wind, closed-loop biomass, and poultry waste. The 106th Congress extended the credit through December 31, 2001. Some bills in the 107th Congress would enhance this credit. One bill (S. 94) would extend the credit for five years, another bill (H.R. 269) calls for a permanent extension of the credit, and still another (S. 188) would broaden it to include a more extensive variety of biomass sources.
Residential Tax Credit. Two bills (S. 207, S. 293) amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to create a refundable tax credit for up to 50% of increased residential energy costs, applicable to a variety of residential equipment, including solar water heaters and photovoltaics. Another bill (S. 465) establishes a 15% residential tax credit for homeowners who purchase photovoltaics and solar thermal equipment. Also, in A Blueprint for New Beginnings, the Bush Administration calls for tax credits for rooftop solar equipment.
Other Incentives and Credits. A 1.5 cent/kwh renewable energy production incentive (REPI) was created by EPAct Section 1212. It is available to state and local government agencies and non-profit electrical cooperatives. One bill (S. 249) would expand the range of eligible renewable energy resources. It would add "incremental" hydropower from new capacity or improved efficiency, and it would broaden biomass resources to include forest wastes, agricultural sources, and certain forms of wood waste. Further, it would add 0.25 cent/kwh, or 17%, to the credit for a qualified facility located on Native American land and for a "co-production" facility that also produces useful heat, mechanical power, or minerals. Also, the National Energy Security Act of 2001 (S. 388) proposes an infrastructure credit for alternatively-fueled vehicles operated by state and other fleets covered by EPAct. Further, in A Blueprint for New Beginnings, the Bush Administration calls for tax credits for renewable fuels to help open markets.
President Bush's A Blueprint for New Beginnings provides an outline of the Administration's budget request, which is expected on April 3. In Chapter 10, the Blueprint notes that solar and renewable energy cannot replace fossil fuels in the near-term, but will be an important part of the nation's long-term energy supply. As part of creating a comprehensive energy policy, the Administration proposes to increase the "performance" of renewable energy R&D by "winnowing out" less promising projects; to use tax credits for rooftop solar equipment and renewable fuels to help market penetration; and to use income from oil and gas production on federal lands to support development of solar and renewable energy.
President's Request. The FY2001 budget request for the Renewable Energy Program proposed to boost funding to $456.6 million -- an increase of $100.0 million (32%) over the FY2000 level. This included $409.5 million for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), an increase of $100.0 million, and $47.1 million for the Office of Science, which was the same as for FY2000.
Energy and Water Appropriations Bill, FY2001. On June 28, the House passed H.R. 4733, the Energy and Water Appropriations bill for FY2001. The House Appropriations Committee recommended $352.8 million (including $47.1 million for programs under the Office of Science) for the DOE Renewable Energy Program. In contending that the Renewable Energy Program request did not merit a large funding increase, the House Appropriations Committee's report cited funding constraints, a lack of sufficient program justifications, and a critique of Program management by the National Academy of Public Administration. However, voice vote approval of the Salmon/Udall/Boehlert/Kaptur amendment (H.Amdt. 920, A006) added $40 million, bringing the House-passed total to $392.8 million. Relative to the FY2000 appropriation, the House level would have provided an increase of $30.6 million, or 8%, in current dollar terms.
On September 7, the Senate approved $444.1 million. Seven floor amendments created earmarks for various renewable energy programs, but none modified the level of appropriations recommended by the Senate Appropriations Committee (S.Rept. 106-395).
Relative to the House level, the Senate would have provided an increase of $53.6 million, or 14.0%, in current dollar terms.
Since 1988, the federal government has accelerated programs that study the science of global climate change and created programs aimed at mitigating fossil fuel-generated carbon dioxide (CO2) and other human-generated emissions. (For more details, see the CRS electronic briefing book on Global Climate Change.)
The federal government funds programs for renewable energy as a mitigation measure at DOE, EPA, the Agency for International Development (AID), and the World Bank. The latter two agencies have received funding for renewable energy-related climate actions through Foreign Operations appropriations bills.
Because CO2 contributes the largest share of greenhouse gas emission impact, it has been the focus of studies of the potential for reducing emissions through renewable energy and other means. DOE's 1997 report by five national laboratories entitled Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions: Potential Impacts of Energy Technologies by 2010 and Beyond estimated the possible emissions impact from renewables. Also known as the Five-Lab Study, it estimated that the development and use of cellulosic biofuels could curb from 12 million to 17 million tons of carbon (MtC). Further, it estimated that, with a $50/metric ton carbon tax, renewable energy electric power technologies (mainly wind energy and biomass cofired with coal) could reduce CO2 emissions by 25 to 50 MtC. However, for the longer-term beyond 2010, the Five-Lab Study concluded that renewables could make a much larger contribution to CO2 reduction. In November 2000, DOE released an updated study, Scenarios for a Clean Energy Futurehttp://www.ornl.gov/ORNL/Energy_Eff/CEF.htm.
In1999, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held a hearing on Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. It focused on contending views of potential costs to implement the 7% reduction in U.S. greenhouse emissions called for in the Protocol. Also, EPA, DOE, and DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) testified at an April 14, 1999, House Science Committee hearing, Fiscal Year 2000 Climate Change Budget Authorization Request. EIA contended that the CCTI provisions would provide minimal reduction in greenhouse emissions. In contrast, EPA and DOE stressed the urgency of action, noting that CCTI provisions would provide immediate savings in energy, costs, and emissions.
Except for biofuels and biopower, wherever renewable energy equipment displaces fossil fuel use, it will also reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as well as pollutants that contribute to water pollution, acid rain, and urban smog. In general, the combustion of biomass for fuel and power production releases CO2 at an intensity that may rival or exceed that for natural gas. However, the growth of biomass material offsets this release. Hence, net emissions occur only when combustion is based on deforestation. In a "closed loop" system, biomass combustion is based on rotating energy crops, there is no net release, and its displacement of any fossil fuel, including natural gas, reduces CO2 emissions.
In the 106th Congress, several electricity industry restructuring bills proposed to eliminate the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), which has been key to the growth of renewable power facilities. Bills intended to ensure a continuing role for renewable energy sources were introduced in the 106th Congress that include some combination of a renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), a public benefits fund (PBF), and/or an information disclosure requirement that supports "green" pricing and marketing of renewable power. Some states and electric utility companies have already instituted such measures.
Debate was focused on whether there should be a federal role in restructuring generally and in creating incentives for renewables specifically. The Clinton Administration's bill, "Comprehensive Electricity Competition Plan," introduced by request as S. 1047 and H.R. 1828, included elements of all three policies described above. Also, H.R. 2050 set provisions for renewables, which were defined to include solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass power, but it excluded all forms of hydropower. Inside Energy of July 26, 1999, reported (p. 5-6) that on July 23, Chairman Barton of the House Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power released a proposed bill outline that excluded a renewable energy portfolio standard, but included in its place an incentive for owners or operators of "qualified renewable energy facilities."
On May 13, 1999, FERC issued a proposed rule to create voluntary regional transmission organizations (RTOs). Comments from several "green" groups argued that the proposal should have addressed access and pricing barriers for renewables and that RTOs be required to provide data needed to verify green marketing claims, track information disclosure requirements, and monitor compliance with state RPS provisions. In contrast, the Edison Electric Institute expressed concern about RTOs becoming too powerful, especially in assessing RPS's.
More details about the debate over renewable energy provisions in federal legislation to restructure the electric power industry are described in CRS Report RS20270 on Renewable Energy and Electricity Restructuring. (For a discussion of broader electricity restructuring issues, see CRS Electronic Briefing Book on Electricity Restructuring and CRS Issue Brief IB10006, Electricity: The Road to Restructuring.)
H.R. 269 (Filner)
H.R. 286 (McCarthy)
H.R. 340 (Miller)
H.R. 381 (Stearns)
H.R. 416 (Andrews)
S. 94 (Dorgan)
S. 188 (Collins)
S. 207 (Smith)
S. 249 (Reid)
S. 259 (Bingaman)
S. 293 (Harkin)
S. 388 (Murkowski)
S. 465 (Allard)
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality. Congressional Perspectives on Electricity Markets in California and the West and National Energy Policy. Hearing held March 6, 2001.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. The Nation's Energy Future: Role of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Hearing held February 28, 2001.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality. National Energy Policy. Hearing held February 28, 2001.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. California's Electricity Crisis and Implications for the West. Hearing held January 31, 2001.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water. DOE FY2001 Budget Request. Hearing held April 11, 2000.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Electricity Legislation (S. 1369). Hearing held April 11, 2000.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development, Production, and Regulation. Climate Change: S. 882 and S. 1776. Hearing held March 30, 2000.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water. DOE FY2001 Budget Request for Energy Resources and Science. Hearing held March 16, 2000.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment. DOE FY2001 Renewable Energy Budget Request. Hearing held March 16, 2000.
U.S. Congress. . Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment. DOE FY2001 Climate Change Budget Request. Hearing held March 9, 2000.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environment. Hearing on Biomass Research and Development (H.R. 2819 and H.R. 2827). Hearing held October 28, 1999.
CRS Report RS20270. Renewable energy and electricity restructuring, by Fred Sissine.
CRS Report RS20146. Electricity restructuring bills: a comparison of PURPA provisions, by Amy Abel and Jon O. Shimabukuro.
CRS Report 98-615. Electricity restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality, by Larry Parker.
CRS Issue Brief 10054. Energy tax policy, by Salvatore Lazzari.
CRS Report 97-416. Federal tax incentives for alcohol fuels, by Salvatore Lazzari.
CRS Report 97-195. The tax treatment of alternative transportation fuels, by Salvatore Lazzari.
Tables showing DOE Renewable Energy R&D Funding (current and constant) trends back to FY1974 are available from the author of this issue brief.
Alliance to Save Energy. Energy innovations: a prosperous path to a clean environment. 1997. 171 p.
Edison Electric Institute. Renewable resources and electricity generation: a report on utility involvement and outlook. June 1995.
Electric Power Research Institute. Renewable power industry status overview. EPRI December 1998. 1 vol. (EPRI TR-111893).
---- Utility customers go for the green. EPRI Journal, v. 22, March/April 1997: 6-15.
---- Renewable energy technology characterizations. Dec. 1997. 266 p.
Holt, Edward A. Disclosure and certification: truth and labeling for electric power. Renewable Energy Policy Project. January 1997. 12 p.
Loiter, Jeffrey M. and Norberg-Bohm, Vicki. Technology policy and renewable energy: public roles in the development of new energy technologies. Energy Policy, v. 27, 1999. p. 85-97.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. International Energy Agency (IEA). Renewable energy policy in IEA countries. OECD/IEA, Paris, 1998. 253 p.
---- Benign energy? The environmental implications of renewables. 1998. 122 p.
U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Making connections: case studies of interconnection barriers and their impacts on distributed power projects. June 2000. http://www.eren.doe.gov/distributedpower/barriersreport/
---- Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Final report of the task force on strategic energy research and development. [Annex 1: Technology Profiles] June 1995.
---- Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Green power marketing in retail competition: an early assessment. May 1999.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Energy efficiency and renewable energy: opportunities from title IV of the Clean Air Act (EPA 430 R-94-001). February 1994.
U.S. Executive Office of the President. Federal energy research and development for the challenges of the twenty-first century. November 5, 1997. 200 p.
U.S. Executive Office of the President. Powerful partnerships: the federal role in international cooperation on energy innovation. June 1999. 260 p.
U.S. General Accounting Office. Renewable energy: DOE's funding and markets for wind energy and solar cell technologies. (GAO/RCED-99-130) May 1999. 38 p. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/multidb.cgi
---- Solar and renewable resources technologies program. (GAO/RCED-97-188). July 1997. 69 p.
U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. Renewing our energy future. OTA-ETI-614. September 1995. 269 p.
U.S. Department of State. Office of Global Change. Climate action report: 1997 submission of the United States of America. July 1997. 256 p.
Wiser, Ryan et al. Renewable energy policy and electricity restructuring: a California case study. Energy Policy, v. 26, 1998. p. 465-475.
American Solar Energy Society. http://www.ases.org/index.html
American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). http://www.awea.org/
California Energy Commission. http://www.energy.ca.gov/renewables/index.html
Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (CREST). http://solstice.crest.org/index.shtml
International Solar Energy Society (ISES). http://www.electricnet.com/orgs/intsolar.htm
National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. http://www.naruc.org/
National Association of State Energy Offices. http://www.naseo.org/
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). International Energy. Agency. Renewable Energy Newsletter. http://www.caddet-re.org
The Buenos Aires Climate Change Conference (COP-4). http://www.state.gov/www/global/gl.../climate/fs-cop4_final_981200.html
The Bonn Climate Change Conference (COP-5).
U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network. http://www.eren.doe.gov/
U.S. Department of Energy. Green Power Network Clearinghouse. http://www.eren.doe.gov/greenpower/home.shtml
U.S. Department of Energy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). http://www.nrel.gov/
U.S. Department of Energy. Alternative Fuels Data Center. http://www.afdc.nrel.gov/
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Solar Site. http://www.epa.gov/solar/
Table 3. DOE Renewable Energy Budget for
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